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FAQ

The following Frequently asked Questions “FAQ” page was created in response to the many questions we are asked every day. Our FAQ aims to share up-to-date and reliable medical information about the current clinical applications of stem cell therapies. It also seeks to cover basic legal, scientific and ethical issues relating to regenerative medicine.

If you do not find the answer to your questions here or elsewhere on our web site, please feel free to contact us.


  • What are Stem Cells?
  • Which kinds of stem cells are used in Stem Cell treatments?
  • What are autologous adult stem cells?
  • How are the stem cells collected?
  • How do adult stem cells work?
  • Autologous vs Allogeneic Stem Cells
  • What is a Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD)?
  • What does Potency and Viability of Stem Cells mean?
  • How to improve the quality of stem cells used in treatments?
  • Why do adipose- (fat) derived stem cell treatments take more than one week?
  • How long is the procedure?
  • For what conditions can Stem Cell Therapy be most beneficial?
  • Does smoking or drinking affect the therapy?
  • Will I be prescribed any drugs?
  • Are adipose and umbilical cord tissue cells safe?
  • Are there any known side effects to Adult Stem Cell Therapy?
  • How long till I see results?
What are Stem Cells?

Stem cells are primitive & unspecialized cells that are recognized for their unique characteristic to undergo differentiation and eventually transform into a particular type of cell, tissue, or bodily organ. They have the distinct ability for self-renewal and are used extensively in regenerative science for the repair of injuries and diseases as needed. Over 100 years of research has shown the power of these cells to transform themselves into several different lineages ie skin cells to blood cells. In essence, hematopoietic stem cells can be coaxed into form lung cells to treat COPD and IPF or heart tissue to treat heart disease and congestive heart failure. Other stem cell variants have an extraordinary capacity to assimilate with its parent tissue, thereby opening multiple windows of application in treating certain diseases.

Which kinds of stem cells are used in Stem Cell treatments?

The primary cells types leveraged for stem cell therapy are:

  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells – ideally suited for treating systemic autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. They also play a significant role in regenerating injured tissue.
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells – best suited for tissue regeneration due to the synergistic effect of CD34+ cells’ revascularization characteristics in concert with the tissue repairing function of the mesenchymal stem cells.
  • T-regulatory cells – play a role in immune system modulation
What are autologous adult stem cells?

Autologous adult stem cells are derived from the same individual’s body. Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the human body, that form after growth & development. Stem cells are the fundamental elements of life that can be found in all tissue of the body; connective tissues, muscle tissues, nervous tissues, and epithelial tissues. In living tissue, the main purpose of adult stem cells is to use cell division to repair and replace dying cells in order to regenerate damaged tissue. Adipose (fat) tissue has the highest concentration of stem cells and can produce billions of cells that will repair, replenish, and rejuvenate one’s body immediately.

How are the stem cells collected?

Bone marrow and adipose tissue are collected from the patient in a medical setting under light general anesthesia. These procedures are minimally invasive and done on an out-patient basis.

  • Adipose tissue collection – Each patient’s own fat tissue is collected by a surgeon via mini-liposuction. The procedure typically take about an hour.
  • Bone marrow collection – Each patient’s bone marrow is collected by an experienced doctor. The bone marrow is drawn into syringes that are inserted through the skin on the back and into the hip bones. Bone marrow collection typically takes about 1.5 hours.
  • Umbilical cord tissue collection – Cord donations from healthy individuals. Our donors sign a consent form, fill out a detailed questionnaire, and give a blood sample. The mothers’ blood and the cord blood undergo extensive testing for HIV, STD’s, hepatitis, etc.
How do adult stem cells work?

Adult stem cells have the ability to self-renew, or divide, to replenish dying tissue of specialized cell types. They can be considered our own built-in repair systems that regenerate cells damaged by disease, injury, and everyday wear-and-tear. Once adult stem cells are administered to the body, they respond to inflammatory signals secreted by damage cells. Ultimately, adult stem cells replenish these damaged cells. Unlike traditional treatments offering less than optimal options, this revolutionary procedure gathers stem cells from their most abundant source, thus ensuring survival.

Autologous vs Allogeneic Stem Cells

Autologous cells are cells that come from the same patient and Allogeneic cells are donated cells (cord blood, Amniotic Membrane, Placenta or Dental Pulp) and not from the patient themselves. For most degenerative diseases autologous cells are not as effective as enhanced allogeneic cells. Cells from Adipose fat tissue and bone marrow-derived are advantages as they are immunoprivileged but allogeneic mesenchymal cells can also elude the recipients immune system because these cells do not express the MHC class II receptors and express very low levels of Class I MHC receptors. The issue with autologous fat stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells are that they are weak and subject to normal age and/or disease-related changes and decrease rapidly in the bone marrow (where they are produced). Although it is possible to differentiate, culture and preserve older mesenchymal cells they are generally much weaker when compared to fresh allogeneic cells. These treatments findings clearly supports the fact that allogeneic mesenchymal cells from young patients have significantly greater regenerative capacity than autologous “fat” or marrow cells from elderly patients.  Autologous stem cells still play a vital role in cosmetic stem cell treatments where allogeneic “donated” cells cannot be used.

What is a Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD)?

This is the typical complication associated with allogeneic stem cell transplants ( not from the patient themselves).  In the case of bone marrow transplants, the recipient’s immune cells may recognize the transplanted cells as a foreign body, thus giving rise to an immunologic attack.  This, in turn, results in rejection of the transplanted stem cells.  With cord blood transplants, the incidence of GvHD is greatly reduced, as the blood’s immune cells are said to be less reactive compared to those that have been extracted from another source. In autologous transplants (wherein you use your own stem cells), there is zero window for GvHD.  This disease is characterized by damages to the skin, mucosa, liver, and gastrointestinal tract.  In rare, acute cases, death can be a result.

What does Potency and Viability of Stem Cells mean?

Viability refers to its state of vitality or “being alive,” which refers to the capability of stem cells to stay vital/potent throughout the processing and storage stages. The rate of success is measured by the “living” stem cell count after processing and laboratory expansion. Viability also extends to the retrieval time of the cells after the thawing process is complete. This measurement is needed for all enriched stem cell therapies as it is used to place a quality measurement on stem cells after the cell extraction, expansion processing and storage procedures.

Potency pertains to power, generally speaking; thus, indicating the strength of stem cells to assume different roles, which must be retained after isolation and processing, and be able to withstand cryogenic stem cell storage. The potency of stem cells may be determined by its capacity to differentiate into a specific cell or tissue variant, as well as its ability to go through extensive proliferative processes.

How to improve the quality of stem cells used in treatments?

Early processing and expansion are a critical factor in successful stem cell treatments because it allows doctors with a greater yield and higher level of quality overall.  With the use of enhanced stem cells successful results is clinically proven.

Collected cell samples are then processed immediately in a closed system environment to eliminate the risk of deterioration and airborne pathogens.  With experience that ensures patients that the cells collected are processed within the acceptable time frame thus assuring a higher-caliber cell transplant (viability and potency) as well as quantity, yield, and sterility.

Why do adipose- (fat) derived stem cell treatments take more than one week?

Intravenously administered adipose-derived stem cells will tend to migrate back to the fresh wound site if it is not given an adequate time to heal. Therefore, it is essential to allow about one week after the mini-liposuction before administering any stem cells intravenously. Otherwise, there is a high likelihood that the treatment will not be as effective.

Additionally, it takes 5 five days to thoroughly test the adipose cell samples for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In order to ensure that no patient receives an infected sample, at least 5 days must transpire before the cells can be confirmed safe and injected back into the patient. Endotoxin testing must also be performed.

Lastly, this 5-day waiting period enables to culture a small sample of each patient’s stem cells in the lab to observe how they are likely to proliferate once they are inside the body. If a patient’s cells show low viability, the doctors will supplement the treatment with additional cord-derived cells to compensate. The same can be done in cases of low cell yield.

How long is the procedure?

Adipose Stem Cell Transplants typically last between 4 and 5 hours and are administered as an outpatient procedure. Doctors harvest dormant adipose stem cells using a mini-liposuction procedure lasting about an hour. The process of incubating, stimulating without manipulation, and infusing stem cells into the body lasts roughly 3 hours.

For what conditions can Stem Cell Therapy be most beneficial?

Using Stem Cell Therapy to treat patients with a wide variety of conditions. Doctors medically treat patients with diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Lupus, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, Autism, Chronic Fatigue, Erectile Dysfunction, and the Epstein Barr Virus. Many sport injuries including those involving muscles, tendons, or joints, have been treated using Stem Cell Therapy as well.

Does smoking or drinking affect the therapy?

Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking can both be detrimental to new progenitor stem cells. It is highly advisable that people do not smoke or drink during their treatment.

Will I be prescribed any drugs?

The doctors will not prescribe any medication as a part of your treatment. However, they do advise a circulating stem cell enhancing supplement regime following treatment.

Are adipose and umbilical cord tissue cells safe?

The body’s immune system is unable to recognize adipose and umbilical tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as foreign and therefore they are not rejected.

Are there any known side effects to Adult Stem Cell Therapy?

The side effects of Adult Stem Cell Therapy are minimal and may include irritation, such as soreness, swelling, or redness at the injection site. In some cases, patients with sensitivities to mild anesthesia may experience nausea, vomiting, headache, or minor fever usually lasting less than 24 hours. No negative long-term effects to this procedure have been reported.

How long till I see results?

Each Stem Cell Therapy treatment is unique to patients and their conditions. Therefore, no guarantee can be made of what results will be achieved or how soon results can be felt. However, patients may begin to experience results within a week with fuller effects felt within 4 to 8 weeks. Depending on the severity of the patient’s condition and if multiple treatments are needed, it may be 6-9 months for results. Research has shown that in most cases, patients reported a decrease in medication intake.

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CelGen Resources is committed to educating and helping people achieve optimum health and better quality of life through the healing benefits with stem cells. We provide information on stem cell therapy options for individuals suffering with various medical conditions such as inflammatory, degenerative illnesses etc.

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